Frequently Asked Questions
How is cancer treated or cured?Although studies on the definitive treatment and solution of cancer are still being carried out, cancer is now among the treatable diseases thanks to early diagnosis and improvements in treatment. In cases where treatment is not possible or in advanced stage cancers, long-term control of the disease can be achieved.
In cancer treatment, targeted molecules and immunotherapy have also been used in recent years. In the treatment of cancer, a treatment plan is created based on the type and degree of cancer and the genetic characteristics of cancer cells.
What methods are used in cancer treatment?Basic methods used in cancer treatment; oncological surgery is medical oncology and radiation oncology.
How is the treatment method determined?There are many factors that affect the way of treatments. At the beginning of these; the patient’s age, general health status, the type of cancer diagnosed, its prevalence, location. Treatment decisions are made as a result of evaluating the patient from many different specialist physicians, and each patient is evaluated separately. Therefore, even if they have the same type of cancer, treatment of each patient is planned according to their own conditions.
What affects the cost of treatment?In this medical branch, it is difficult to determine the cost before examining the case. Personalized treatment plans are the right way. Specialists and hospitals in our network will evaluate each case individually and recommend a personalized treatment plan. Please contact our Care Team to get a treatment plan and a quote for your treatment. We will be happy to assist you!
Factors that affect the cost of treatment:
- Technology used
- Specialization qualifications / expertise
- Treatment method
- Medicine cost
- Cancer stage
- Diagnosis of the patient
What is Oncological Surgery?Surgery is one of the most important forms of treatment in cancer treatment. Oncological surgery, which plays a role in the treatment and treatment of the cancerous region, has an important share in other fields of diagnosis and treatment. Oncological surgery applications are performed by general surgery doctors trained in this field.
What are the application areas of surgical treatment?Therapeutic (curative) surgery is also performed within the scope of oncological surgery. However, the prerequisite for therapeutic surgery is to be limited to the organ or lymph nodes that the disease originated from. These patients should not have distant metastases and there should be no pathological tumor at the border obtained by surgical resection. The tumor can be completely removed after patients’ borders are drawn well. However, there are cases when the tumor cannot be completely removed. In these cases, debulking surgery can be performed to reduce the mass. Also, the removal of the few metastases means that the patient has a better chance of recovery.
It is also possible to apply oncological surgery in palliative (relief) treatments. It is also possible to apply the symptoms caused by the disease or to relieve the patient. Surgical applications are also used in other areas of diagnosis and treatment. These areas are gathered under 4 headings:
Prophylactic Surgery: It is attempted to surgically remove tissue with a risk of cancer. Intestinal polyps, skin lesions, breast changes that are at risk of cancer can be treated with prophylactic surgery.
Biopsy: It is performed in the form of sampling and pathological evaluation of the part taken through surgical intervention with a number of medical devices. Definitive diagnosis can be made by performing a biopsy.
Staging: It is attempted to take samples from places to understand the prevalence of the disease.
Adjuvant: Preventive treatment is arranged after determining the staging of the disease.
What is Pediatric Oncology & Hematology?Childhood cancers; It is a name given to a group of diseases that occur with uncontrolled reproduction of cells anywhere in the body, spread to different parts of the body in a short time by blood or lymph, disrupting health and endangering life. Although it can be seen at any age from newborn period to adolescence, it is the most common period; first 5 years. However, it is possible to say that 60-70 percent of children with cancer have fully recovered with early diagnosis and proper treatment.
Pediatrik Onkoloji & Hematoloji tedavi yöntemleri nelerdir?
The way of treatment with drugs that act on rapidly growing cells. Generally, multiple drugs are administered together by special catheters through the vascular access. It is applied in oncology departments by oncology nurses under the supervision of a child oncologist, in the form of sessions, which are frequently repeated at regular intervals. Since chemotherapy drugs have very serious permanent side effects, detailed information is given to the family by the responsible specialist.Surgical treatment:
It is a treatment model for leukemia and non-lymphoma tumors, also called solid tumors. Usually, in early stage cancers, the entire tumor is surgically removed without causing organ loss. Chemotherapy is applied in the continuation of the treatment. In advanced stage cancers or removal of the tumor will cause organ loss or functional impairment is unacceptable, the tumor is first shrunk with chemotherapy and then surgical treatment is started.Radiotherapy:
It is a treatment with high energy X-rays. High-dose radiation can kill fast-growing cells or stop their reproduction. Therefore, it is not usually used in children, especially in the first 3-5 years when body growth is fast. It is applied in addition to surgery and chemotherapy in the treatment of certain solid tumors, especially brain tumors. Experts responsible for having important side effects are obliged to provide detailed information to the family before treatment. However, today, the aim of radiotherapy is to affect only the tumor without damaging the surrounding tissues by using different devices and radiation sources.Bone marrow / Stem cell transplant:
It is a treatment model that is applied after high dose chemotherapy in high risk or recurrent lymphoma and solid tumors sensitive to chemotherapy, especially leukemia. The bone marrow or stem cell used for transplantation may be the patient’s own (autologous) tissue, preferably as preferred in leukemias, from a suitable donor (allogeneic). Due to the very high dose of chemotherapy applied before the transplant, very important side effects such as tissue rejection, bleeding, and infection can develop during the transplant and within the time the tissue is accepted. Although bone marrow transplant is a treatment model that increases the chances of healing, there is a risk of the disease recurring.
What is Medical Oncology?Medical oncology is a branch of science that covers not only the treatment of patients with cancer, but also cancer prevention, screening, and early diagnosis. So, every stage of cancer concerns medical oncology. In addition, cooperation is made with various fields such as surgery or radiology in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and the approach to the patient is planned as a multidisciplinary based on scientific data.
How is Medical Oncology Treatment?Treatment is carried out by intravenous or oral administration. However, this practice varies according to the type of cancer. Treatment planning; it changes according to the cell type of the cancer, the organ where it begins and the region where it spreads. Treatment is used as adjuvant to reduce the risk of recurrence of the disease, neoadjuvant to make the mass suitable for the operation or to protect the organ, and palliative to extend the life span and improve the quality of life in advanced disease. Treatment can also be done alone or in combination.
Which methods is Medical Oncology applied?
- Chemotherapy (medicated treatment):
The aim of chemotherapy is to ensure that cancer cells that grow uncontrollably due to some changes in their structure are destroyed. In most cases, it is aimed to kill cancer cells by giving several drugs with different mechanisms of action. The use of drugs to perform cancer chemotherapy first appeared at the beginning of the 20th century. Mustard gas I. and II. During its use in World War II, it was thought that it would show a similar lethal feature in fast-growing cancer cells by detecting low levels in white spheres. In the 1940s, a successful step was taken in the treatment of lymphoma by intravenous administration in the conditions of that day. This development led to the search for other substances that may be effective in cancer. Many chemotherapeutic drugs have been developed today.Hormone Therapy:
Hormonal drugs are used in the treatment of hormone sensitive tumors such as prostate and breast cancer. The application is generally done by mouth. Another form of application is injection.Immunotherapy (Immune Therapy):
The substances produced naturally by the immune system are used for the recognition and killing of cancer cells by stimulating the body’s defense system.Targeted Biological Treatment:
Biological treatments determined by determining the targets carried by cancer cells but not found in normal cells are considered as the most important developments of cancer treatment in the last 10 years. Targeted therapies developed in cancer treatment are applied in many types of cancer, especially breast cancer, bowel cancer, renal cell (kidney) cancers.
- Chemotherapy (medicated treatment):
Which types of cancer are treated with Medical Oncology?Breast cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, pancreatic cancer, liver cancers, gallbladder and tract cancers, head and neck tumors, osteosarcoma and soft tissue sarcomas, brain tumors, kidney – bladder cancers, prostate cancer, malignant melanoma, thyroid cancer Many types of cancer can be treated with medical oncology methods such as ovarian cancer, cervical (cervical) cancer, endometrium (cervical) cancer, testicular cancer, lymphomas, multiple myeloma.
What is Radiation Oncology?Radiation Oncology is the discipline that investigates the effects of radiation on cancer, the behavior of tumors and conducts research and practice in this field by using ionizing radiation. There are two application areas in radiation oncology, radiotherapy and radiosurgery.
What is Radiotherapy (Radiation Therapy)?Radiotherapy; It is defined as radiation therapy of cancerous tissue or some benign tumors. For this reason, it is also called as “Radiation therapy” or “Radiation therapy” among the public. The rays used in radiotherapy are used to stop the growth of cancer cells in the treated area or to kill those cells. Radiotherapy is a frequently used application in cancer treatment. So much so that in 60-80 percent of cancer patients, after the diagnosis of cancer, there is a need for radiotherapy at least once.
What is Radiosurgery?One of the application areas of radiation oncology is radiosurgery. The aim is to direct a large number of low energy beams to the diseased area and focus on the diseased point, creating a change in the tissue by providing high energy only at this point. Thus, cancer cells shrink or die by giving intense rays to the diseased area, while the normal tissues around it are protected from the harmful effects of radiation.
What are Radiosurgery Applications?
- STEREOTACTIC RADIOCURRACY (SRC):
SRC, which means the treatment of a target with the help of coordinates, means that the tumor is completely destroyed in one session with high dose radiation following the determination of the coordinates in three dimensions. The implementation of IGRT during this process is important for the actual destruction of the target.STEREOTACTIC RADIOTHERAPY (SRT):
SRC treatment in more than one session; The treatment is called Stereotactic Radiotherapy (SRT) when generally 3-5 sessions are applied.CYBERKNIFE:
CyberKnife therapy is a non-surgical treatment method for cancer or non-cancerous tumors using image-guiding software to place tumors and transmit high-dose radiation to the treatment target. CyberKnife treatment, using software and imaging techniques, is highly sensitive, locates the tumor and transmits radiation to the specific area, that is, the radiation transmitted to the areas around the tumor is minimal.
- STEREOTACTIC RADIOCURRACY (SRC):
Where can CYBERKNIFE treatment be used?CyberKnife therapy can be used anywhere in the body, such as the brain, lung, prostate, pancreas, liver and spine. It is a noninvasive treatment that does not involve surgery or any incision. Treatment is typically carried out on inoperable tumors, surgically complex tumors, or in patients used as a surgical alternative.
CYBERKNIFE tedavisi ve radyoterapi arasındaki fark nedir?CyberKnife tedavisi ve radyasyon tedavisi arasındaki fark, CyberKnife tedavisinin ameliyat gerektirmemesi, radyasyon tedavisi ise genellikle ameliyatla birlikte yapılmasıdır. CyberKnife tedavisi ayrıca kullanılan radyasyon tedavisi miktarını azaltır ve normalde birkaç gün boyunca, genellikle 1 ila 5 seansta gerçekleştirilir ve zaman ölçeğini radyasyon tedavisinden çok daha hızlı ve daha verimli hale getirir.
When is CYBERKNIFE treatment recommended?
- Inoperable tumors
- Surgically complex tumors
- Patients at very high risk for surgery